HISTORY OF MARITIME CONNECTICUT
DURING THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION
1773 - 1783
By Louis F. Middlebrook
The Essex Institute
pp. 80-87, 98-103, 116-117
This vessel, 80 feet keel, 27 feet beam, 12 feet depth of hold, was ordered built at Saybrook (Essex) by the General Assembly January 81st, 1776, and was the largest full-rigged ship constructed for the State under the general direction of the Governor and Council of Safety. Uriah Hayden, ship builder, was chosen to do the work under the supervision of Capt. Seth Harding, who was paid £32.6.9 for his services, according to voucher dated Jan. 30, 1776, on file, and various payments were made beginning April 2,1776, and continuing to October 23, 1776, as the work progressed, during which time £1750 had been paid, according to orders on the Committee of the Pay Table drawn by Benjamin Huntington, Clerk of the Council. These payments included provision for rigging which was furnished by Ephraim Bill; Wm. Lax for making the gun carriages; Nathaniel Wales for muskets and gun locks, and Capt.. Benj. Williams for iron and blacksmith work. The Cromwell was launched at Saybrook on Thursday, June 13, 1776. On Thursday night, August 1, 1776, she was struck by lightning, which did considerable damage to her main and mizzen masts, but repairs were quickly made, and on Sunday, August 18th, the new ship of war Oliver Cromwell, commanded by William Coit, Esq., sailed out of Connecticut River and arrived at New London on Tuesday, August 20th, 1776, the largest craft that had ever come over Saybrook bar, and piloted by James Harris. On Oct. 22, 1776, Titus Hosmer, a member of the Council, gave an order to Mr. Buell for 40 firearms to be delivered to Captain Coit for the use of the ship. The next day James Tilly of Saybrook was allowed £400 for cordage, and Levi Young was appointed Master and warrant as such issued by the Governor. Captain Coit also received two months cruising orders and Nathaniel Shaw of New London was directed to supply the ship with whatever it needed. On Nov. 15th, Captain Colt was allowed £1,000 for the use of the ship and Mr. Shaw £2,000 for public use. Dr. Samuel Lee of Windham was appointed Surgeon of the Cromwell on the same day. On Dec. 14, 1776, Nathl. Shaw was authorized to draw a letter of credit in favor of Captain Coit, for use when necessary, for repairs or supplies while in any foreign port, and Dr. Albigence Waldo was appointed Chief Surgeon of the ship, as evidently Dr. Lee resigned.
On January 8, 1777, the furnace at Salisbury was ordered to cast and furnish 200 hand-grenades and a ton of swivel shot for the ship, and on Jan. 28th, all officers and men were ordered on board to make ready for sailing, £150 being provided Captain Coit for expenses. About this time there were difficulties attending the shipping and entering of the crew, causing further delay and trouble. The other officers of the vessel were Timothy Parker, 1st Lieut., David Hawley, 2d Lieut., Samuel Champlain, 3d Lieut., Azariah Whittlesey of Saybrook, Master in place of Levi Young, and Eliphalet Roberts of Hartford Captain of Marines. Dissatisfaction occurred among the officers; some of them retired and others dismissed. In October, 1776, the list stood: Captain William Coit, 1st Lieut. Michael Melally, 2d Lieut. John Chapman, 3d Lieut John Smith of East Hartford, 2d Lieut. of Marines John Prentiss, Surgeon’s Mate Thos. Gray. Desertions and trouble amongst the crew made further delay and almost mutiny, due to lack of pay and apparent inability, on account of hurried calls upon the sources of supply for war material and provisions from every quarter of the State, to provide the many needs so urgent at the same time.
Lieutenants Parker, Hawley, Champlin, Whittlesey and Melally sought relief themselves from the inactivity due to all these causes, and went to privateering in vessels of their own, as shown by the records of their ships and exploits. Lieutenant Melally made application to the Governor early in March, 1777, for his dismissal, which was accepted by the Council March 14th. Lieutenant Melally being a good sailorman his discharge caused further uneasiness amongst the crew, an is shown by. Midshipman Luther Elderkin’s letter of March 17, 1777, to the Governor and Council and in which he himself sought dismissal for other service. So that, after due deliberation by the Council, Captain Coit was not allowed to make the cruise in the Cromwell, andon April 14th, 1777, he was discharged from the State service, after the conference at Lebanon, March 25th, and respecting his accounts. Both Dr. Lee and Dr. Thomas Gray were appointed as Surgeon and Surgeon’s Mate on April 3, 1777, in Col. John Durkee’s Regiment.
Nathaniel Shaw of New London, as well as Capt. Jonathan Huntington, Nathl. Backus and Jabez Perkins were authorized to adjust and settle up Captain Coit’s accounts remaining unpaid with Uriah Hayden, Capt. Benj. Williams and Capt. Richard Deshon for labor, services, sailmaking, &c., and matters were generally hurried along, and on April 11th, 1777, the Council then sitting at Lebanon appointed Captain Seth Harding to the command of the Cromwell, he having released his command of the Defence to Captain Smedley because of ill health, though sufficiently recovered to accept the billet thus offered. Timothy Parker was recalled and appointed as First Lieutenant and Executive Officer, John Chapman recalled as Second Lieutenant, John Smith of East Hartford appointed Third Lieutenant, Eliphalet Roberts remaining as Captain of Marines, John Prentiss 2d as First Lieutenant of Marines, Bela Elderkin as Second Lieutenant of Marines, and Josiah Burnham as Master. Captain Harding enlisted a new crew to serve until Oct. 14, 1777, and matters were promptly placed in motion, so that by April 22d, the ship was ready for the inspection by the Governor and Company, which was held in New London harbor on that day.
Before sailing, however, there was another change in the personnel. Eliphalet Roberts was dismissed as Captain of Marines, as well as Lieutenants Prentiss and Elderkin, and but one marine officer provided for, viz. Lieut. James Day; and Josiah Burnham was succeeded by Caleb Frisbie as Master. Benjamin Ellis was appointed Surgeon, and Timothy Rogers his mate. The Cromwell sailed on her first cruise early in May, 1777, and soon captured the prizes hereafter recorded. Before the ship sailed, Captain Coit, late commander, applied to the Council on April 22nd, complaining of hard treatment and requested a committee appointed to examine his accounts, that he may be exonerated, and accordingly Capt. John Deshon, Ebenezer Ledyard and Capt. Jos. Hurlbut were selected. Nathaniel Shaw was also directed to assist in the examination and to act in behalf of the State. June 7th, 1777, the accounts of Captain Roberts were adjusted also, concerning the marines, and Captain Coit appointed as paymaster in the settlement, and an auditing committee appointed June 10th, consisting of Jabez Huntington, Nathaniel Wales and Benjamin Huntington, to attend to the final adjustment, and on July 14, 1777, said settlement was made in full by voting Captain Coit a payment in full for all accounts of £787.12. 6 1/4. Capt. Eliphalet Roberts, after his dismissal as Marine Officer of the Cromwell, fin-mediately engaged as Captain of the privateer sloop Polly, and was ready to sail on a cruise June 19, 1777, when he advertised for seamen and marines.
On April 14, 1777, Captain Harding took command of the ship, reconditioned her, and recruited a crew of 102 men, so that by May 21st he was able to sail, and arrived at Bedford in Dartmouth, Massachusetts Bay, the next day, and opened a house of rendezvous for recruiting. Having secured a crew of 150 men he left Bedford June 5, 1777, for the high seas, in search of British prizes. He had not been out long before he was rewarded, his first prize being the brig Honour, which arrived safely at Bedford with a cargo valued at £10,204-11-6, as shown by her inventory of sale. What the brig itself brought does not appear. His next capture was made on July 28th, 1777, when he took the ship Weymouth, 14 guns, bound from Jamaica to London, which was sent into Boston, and on July 19th he fell in with and captured the ship Restoration. The latter, however, which was in charge of Midshipman Sherman Lewis as prize master, was recaptured by the British ship Ambuscade, Captain McCartney, and sent into Halifax. Capt. Harding put into the Kennebec with his prisoners, and as he himself was ill, he remained until well enough to proceed with his people to Boston overland; and Lieut. Timothy Parker continued with the Cromwell and her prize the Weymouth to Boston. The prisoners, later in the season, were convoyed overland in care of one Azariah Hilliard, a seaman belonging to the Cromwell, to Connecticut, where provision was made at New London for them to be transported by a cartel to New York for exchange. While en route down the Sound, however, they mutinied, overpowering the cartel’s crew, and escaped ashore on Long Island. The officers of both the Weymouth and the Honour set out for Lebanon under the care of Midshipman Curtis Reed of the Cromwell. Captain Judd of the British Frigate Antelope, and Captain Flynn of the Weymouth, were among the prisoners taken.
Captain Harding, however, did not readily regain his health and was compelled to relinquish his command on that account to Lieut. Timothy Parker, who remained at Boston, refitted the ship and prepared for another cruise in company with the State ship Defence, Captain Smedley, who had been detained at Boston for the purpose of lengthening out his vessel. By December, 1777, everything was in readiness, Captain Parker bad been appointed to command the Cromwell and received his orders to cruise, but on account of delay with the reconstruction program of the Defence, it was the following spring before the two vessels were ready to take their departure. In the meantime Captain Harding had sufficiently recovered from his prolonged illness as to be recommended to the Navy Board of the United States, by Governor Trumbull, for the command of the new Continental frigate Confederacy, then being built in the Thames River below Norwich, and to which command he was later ordered. About the last of February, 1778, as soon as the Defence received her new guns, both ships put to sea in search of more prizes. The Cromwell had been incidentally ordered to Charleston, S. C., for a cargo including indigo, to be taken to France., but on account of smallpox, kept to sea while inoculations were being made, and to assist the Defence, which also was similarly stricken. While cruising east of St Kitts in company with the latter vessel, on April 15th they fell in with two British privateer ships, the Admiral Keppel and Cyrus, of 18 and 18 guns respectively, and captured them. (See correspondence relating to the Defence, and the Log of Timothy Boardman, carpenter’s mate in the Cromwell.) Both of these prizes were sent to Boston and a handsome sum was realized for the State for their condemnation and cargoes.
Among the prisoners was the Hon. Henry Shirley, his wife, family and suite, en route to Jamaica as His Majesty’s Governor, etc., and there was prolonged correspondence on his account, with respect to his being allowed to charter a vessel, after giving his parole, for the purpose of reaching his destination. After much consideration by Governor Trumbull and Council, he was finally permitted to carry out his desire, together with Mr. Paul Phipps of Kingston, Jamaica, to proceed to that island, under a flag of truce, at his own expense, provided he arranged for an equal exchange for his party, which was accordingly done.
The Cromwell then proceeded to cross the Bahama Banks and to gradually work up the coast, but suffered a severe check to her operations by running intoa severe hurricane near the Bahamas, in which she lost all her masts and barely escaped utter annihilation the tempest. This happened after she left Charleston (August 24, 1778) and while en voyage to France. Her condition was such, however, that Captain Parker was compelled to abandon his voyage and under jury rig, find his way back to New London for refitting, of which he was sadly in need, and where be arrived Sept. 8, 1778. After refitting and before the winter set in Captain Parker made another dash to sea and early in October, 1778, fell in with and. captured the Brig Medway, with a cargo valued at £3,969, and sent her into Hyannis, Cape Cod. (See Inventory, Vol. IX, Rev. War.) Having again returned to New London, be remained there all winter. Nathaniel Shaw of New London, Marine Agent for the State, was directed to get the. Cromwell in readiness to annoy the enemy down the Sound by Jan. 7, 1779, if practicable and if a crew could be obtained speedily for this purpose, the dividend of prizes to be the same as allowed to privateers. But on account of various delays incident to the winter, recruiting, etc., it was March before she was able to complete her preparations, and even April before being able to sail. She, however, got away in time, and on May 25, 1779, returned to New London with four British prizes, viz., the schooner Hazard, of 10 guns and, swivels and 40 men; a British schooner, St. George, with mahogany and logwood from Honduras; the schooner Dove, and the Frigate Renown’s tender York. Having libeled her prizes in the Maritime Court, she immediately put to sea again, but had. only gotten fairly started on her voyage (in company with the privateer Hancock) when, on Saturday, June 6th, 1779, while cruising some leagues south of Sandy Hook, she fell in with three British ships and a brig. One of the ships was a very fast sailer, and coming up with the Oliver Cromwell they engaged for nearly two hours, in which time the Cromwell shot away her main topmast; but the other two ships coming up, she was obliged to strike, after making a gallant defence. The Oliver Cromwell mounted about 20 guns and had about 180 men. The British changed her name to the Restoration. Captain Parker and his men were made prisoners and taken to New York, where they remained until August 25th, when they were exchanged.
The record of the Oliver Cromwell’s prizes therefore is as follows:
Brigantine Honour, July 8, 1777.
Ship Weymouth,, July 28, 1777.
Ship Restoration, July 19, 1777 (never arrived).
Ship Admiral Keppel, April 15, 1778.
Brig Medway, October, 1778.
Schooner Hazard, May 25, 1779.
Schooner St. George, May 25, 1779.
Schooner Dove, May 25, 1779.
Sloop York, May 25, 1779.
Captain Parker, commander of the Oliver Cromwell, had previously been captured when he was Lieutenant of the State Schooner Spy, and had been exchanged before. After returning in August, 1779, as an exchanged prisoner, he went to privateering as commander of the ship Scourge, 20 guns, 150 men; and later in command of the Norwich owned sloop Prudence, 10 guns and 45 men. He also commanded the sloop Hancock, in the fall of 1779, for a short time. Timothy Parker was born May 7, 1735, the son of John Parker and Elizabeth Smith, who removed from Falmoutb, Cape Cod, to Norwich, Conn., in 1745. Capt. Timothy Parker married Deborah Lester of Norwich, March 23, 1769, and some of their descendants live in that city now.
One of the members of the crew of the Cromwell kept a Log on the second and third cruises of that vessel in 1778, which is given verbatim herein, as contributing to and portraying conditions and reality of daily experiences of the venturesome voyages of that time.
THE LOG OF
Timothy Boardman, 24 years old, Carpenter’s mate in the ship Oliver Cromwell, 1778.
April 7th: The Defence has 5 Men Broke out with Small Pox.
10th: Exercised cannon & musquetry.
11th: Saw a sail. The Defence spoke with Her. She a Frenchman from Bordeaux to the West Indies.
13th:Crosd the Tropick. Shavd & duckd about 60 men.
14th: At 4 o’clock Afternoon Saw a Sail Bareing ESE. We gave Chace to Her & came up with Her at 8 o’clock.She was a Large French Ship. We Sent the boat on Board of her. She Informd us of two English Ships which she Left Sight of at the time we saw Her.
15th: At Day Break we saw 2 sail Bareing SE by E. Distance 2 Leagues. We gave Chaise under a moderate sail At 9 o’clock P. M. Came up with them. They at first shew French Colours to Decoy Us. When we came in about Half a mile of us She ups with English Colours. We had Continental Colours flying. We engaged the Ship Admiral Keppel as follows: When we came in about 20 Rods of her, we gave her a Bow Gun. She soon returned us a Stern chase and then a Broadside of Grape and Round shot. Capts orders not to fire till we can see the White of their eyes. We got Close under their Larboard Quarter. They began another Broad side. Then we began & held Tuff & Tuff for about 2 Glasses, and then she struck to us. At the same time the Defence engagd the Cyrus, who as the Keppel struck Wore around under our stern. We Wore ship & gave her a Stern chase at which she Immediately struck. The loss on our side was one killd and 6 wounded, one mortally who soon died. Our Ship was Hulld 9 times with 6 pound shot, 8 of which went through our Birth, one of which Wounded the Boatswain’s yeoman. The loss on their side was 2 killd & 6 wounded. Their larboard quarter was well filled with shot. One 9 pounder went through Her Main Mast. Imployd in the afternoon in taking out the men & manning the Prize. The Keppel mounted 20 guns, 18 six pounders and 2 wooden do with about 45 Men; the Cyrus mounted 16 six pounders with 35 men. Letters of Marque Bound from Bristol to Jamaica Laden with Dry Goods &c.
18th: Capt Day died.
19th: Capt Brown of the Ship Admiral Keppel & Capt Dike of the Cyrus., with 3 ladies & 8 men were sets off in a Long boat for St. Kitts on Capts Parker & Smedley’s Permition.
20th: Imployd in taking things out of the Prize viz, one Chest of Holland, a quantity of Hats & Shoes, Cheeses, Porter & some Crockery Ware, Small Armes, Pistols, Hangers, Two Brass Barrel Blunderbusses, a quantity of Riggen &e.
21st: At 3 o’clock in the Afternoon we Wore ship to the southard. The Prizes made Sail to the Northard. We lost sight of them at six.
May 2d: Sprung our Fore Top Mast. Struck it and shipt another in its Room.
8th: Saw a sail Over our Starboard Bow. We gave chase to her. She was a French Guineaman Bound to the Mole with 612 slaves on Board. Our Capt put 6 prisoners on board of her. Left her just at Dark.
11th: At 5 o’clock in the morning saw a Saile at the windward two Leagues Dist Bareing down upon us. We lay too for Her till she Came in Half gun shot of us. The men at mast head Cryd out 4 Sail to the Leeward. Our officers concluded to make sail from Her supposing her to be a Frigate of 86 guns. After we made sail we Left as fast as we wanted. She gave over chase at 2 o’clock afternoon. She was a Seaford of 28 Guns.
22d: Sprung our Main Top Sail yard.
28th: Made the land of Port Royal.
29th: the Ship Struck bottom Thrice.
30th: Come Over Bar this morning & arrivd in the Harbour in company with the Ship Defence comdd by Saml Smedley.
Charles Town SC May ye 30, 1778.
Charlestown July 6th 1778.
Conversation between Capt Parker & My Self this Day.
July 24th:Weighd anchor at 5 Fatham Hole & came over the Bar in Company with the Notre Dame a 16 gun Brig & 2 sloops. Mett a French ship on the Bar Bound in.
29th: Saw a Sail, gave Chase.
31st: Saw 2 Sail, gave Chase. Light winds.
7th: at 5 o’clock afternoon made the Land of Abaco.
8th: at 10 o’clock Harbour island. Bore east Dist 2 leagues.
9th: Hard Gales of wind.
10th: Fresh Gales of wind & Heavy Squals.
11th: Fresh breezes & a Rough Sea.
12th: at 6 afternoon Caught a Great Turtle which was kookt the next Day for the Entertainment of the Gentlemen of the Fleet. No less than 13 Came on Board to Dine.
14th: at 2 o’clock P. M. Harbour island Bore S b W 1 League Dist. Sent the yoll on shore. The Brig Sent her Boat a shore too.
15th: the 2 Boats returnd with a two mast boat and 4 men belonging to New Providence. Squaly Night & Smart Thunder & Lightning.
16th: Crosd the Bahama Banks from 8 Fathoms of Water to 3 ¾ Came to anchor at Night on the Bank.
17th: Arrivd at Abimines. Filld our Water Cask & Hoggd Ship & Boot Topt the Ship.
18th: at Day Break Weighd Anchor together with the Rice Thumper Fleet. at Noon Parted with them & fired 13 guns. The other Fird their guns which was a 16 Gun brig the Notre Dame comdd by Capt Hall, a 10 Gun sloop comdd by Capt Robberts, a 12 Gun sloop comdd by John Crappo or Petweet, and stood to the Westward acrost the Gulf.
19th: At Day the Cape of Florida Bore West. We stood for it a crost the Gulf. We came out of the Gulf in 5 Fathoms of Water & within 80 Rod of a Rief in the space of 15 minutes in About a League of the Shore, the Capt & other officers was surprizd. We have the Ship in Stays & beat off, the wind being moderate.
20th: Saw a sail & gave her Chase & came up. She was a Spainiard a Palacca from Havana Bound to Spain. She Informd us of the Jamaica Fleet, that they passed the Havana 10 days back which made us Give Over the Hopes of seeing them.
22d: Saw this Spainiard about a League to the westward.
23d: Sunday saw a ships mast in the Forenoon & just at night a Large Jamaica Puncheon floating. We hoisted out our Boat & went in Pursuit of it but could not get it. We suppose it was Full of Rum. This Afternoon a large swell Broke & soon after a Fine breeze which Increast harder in the morning.
24th: Sun about 2 hours High. We saw white water in about a mile under our Lee Bow. We saw the Breakers which was on the Bahama Banks which surprizd our officers and men greatly. We Put our Ship about and had the Good fortune to Clear them. The wind Blew Harder. We struck Top Gallant Yards & Lanch4 Top Gallant Mast. Lay too under one Leach of our Fore Sail. Got 9 pounder Guns Down in the Lower Hold & Cleard the Decks of unnecessary Lumber. The wind continued verry hard. The air was verry thick. Just before night the sea came in over our Larboard nettins on the Gangway. All the officers advised to cut away the main mast which we did. Just at Dusk, all the hope we had was that it would not Blow harder, but it Continued harder till after mid night. About 1 o’clock it seemed to Blow in whirl winds which Obliged us to cut away our Fore Mast & Mizzen Mast. Soon after the wind changd to the Eastward which greatly encouragd us being much affraid of the Bahama Banks. The Fore Mast fell to the windward & knocked our Anchor off the Bow so that we cut away for fear it would make a Hole in the Bow of the Ship. Our Fore Mast lay along side for 2 hours after it fell, it being impossible to Get Clear of it. We bent our Cables for fear of the Banks that we might try to Ride it out if we Got on.
25th: Moderated some but very Rough so that we could do no Work.
26th: Got a Jury Mast on the main mast.
27th: Got up Jury masts on the Fore & Mizzen Masts.
30th: At 8 o’clock in the Morning saw a brig over our Weather Bow 2 Leagues Dist. We kept our course. She stood the same way. Just at night we Gave her 2 Guns but she kept on. We lost sight of her.
31st: At 5 in the morning saw a brig ahead. Gave her Chase. Came up with her about Noon. We hoisted our colours. She hoisted English colours. We gave her one Gun which made them come Tumbling Down.
Sep 2d: Gott Soundings of Cape May 45 Fathoms.
Sep 3d: At night lost sight of the Prize.
Sep 4th: Saw a sail a privateer Schooner. She kept around us all Day & hoisted English Colours. We hoisted English colours but she thought best not to speak with us.
Sep 5th: Made land at 9 o’clock in the Morning, the South Side of Long Island against South Hampton & came to anchor under Fishers Island at 12 o’clock at night. Saw 5 sail in the afternoon standing to the Westward, two of them Ships.
Sep 6th: New London. Arrivd in this Harbour.
Pay List for Ship Oliver Cromwell, Timothy Parker, Commander, from December 1777 to September 1778.
Timothy Parker: Commander
John Chapman: First Lieut.
Caleb Frisbie: 2d Lieut.
John Tillinghast: 3d Lieut.
Benj. Jones: Master
Andrew Morris: 1st Mate & Master
Joseph Hubbard: 2d Mate
Curtis Reed: 3d Mate & 1st Mate
Ralph Hoadley: Midshipman & 2d Mate
Saml. Stowe: Midshipman & 3d Mate
Wm. Higgins: Midshipman
Saml. Bidwell: ---- do
Isaiah Cahoon: ---- do
Saml. Buffam: --- do
John Craig: Boatswain
Thos. Tillinghast: Boatswain’s mate deserted
Sami. Lollard: 2d mate
Thos. Wait Foster: Gunner
Peter John Forster: ---- do mate
Edward Brazier: Yeoman deserted
Jacob Chandler: Carpenter
Amos Ranney: Carpenter’s mate deserted
Timothy Boardman: --- do
James Day: Captain Marines killed Apr. 18, 1778
Azariah Hilliard: Sergt. Marines
Abel Woodworth: --- do
Jabez Perkins: Captain’s clerk
Turtle Hunter: Coxswain (sailmaker)
Saml. Holman: Steward
Thos. Smith: Quartermaster
John Essex: --- do deserted
Douty Randall: --- do
Thos. Whaples: --- do deserted
Chace Rogers: Cooper
Gideon Chapman: Doctor’s mate
Edmond Morris: Seaman
Richard Rose: Marine
Jordon Smith: --- do
Caleb Smith: Cook
Archelus Barker: Seaman
Saml. Andrus: Marine
Joseph Smith: Seaman
Hutchins Bowden: --- do
Charles Boardman: Marine
Ebenezer Baldwin: --- do
Eliphalet Roberta Jr.: --- do
John Henry: --- do
Levy Darling: ---- do
Crittenden Ward: --- do
Jeremiah Ward: --- do
Daniel Sandeforth: ---- do
John Rogers 5th: Drummer
Chapman Simmons: Marine
Thos. Croman: --- do
Jeremiah Thorp: --- do
Jonathan Waterhouse: Marine
Daniel Billiard: marine & gunner’s yeoman
John Whittlesey: --- do
John Wellman: --- do
Roswell Lanphear: --- do
Nathaniel Riley: --- do
John Batt: ---- do deserted
Roger Dyer: Seaman
Joseph Miller: --- do
Anthony Wolf: ---- do
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